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How are micronations founded?

While many micronations today, even those that are territorially-based, are still launched with the help of an Internet website, how micronations are founded, and how they succeed, is less straightforward.

Starting a micronation is the relatively easy part. The hard part is keeping it alive, and even growing, i.e. actually succeeding where most universities or research centres would fail.

It is true that to have a nation or a people you don't necessarily need all of the attributes such as a history, a distinct race, language, culture, religion, or territory, but that doesn't make things easy.

The territory part is probably the hardest thing to acquire control of these days with virtually the entire surface of the planet claimed by one UN member state or another, but new micronations don't have an easy time with the history part either, as they lack a history right from the start.

Notions of race are also problematic for self-starting micronations. According to Article 6(a) of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) covenant, a nation or people is a "group of human beings which possess the will to be identified as a Nation or a People[;] and to determine its common destiny as a Nation or a People[;] and is bound by a common heritage which can be historical, ethical, racial, linguistic, cultural, religious or territorial." UNPO also defines a nation or people as a "section of a people constituting a minority, living on a portion of its ancestral territory, incorporated into a State other than a State represented by that People", and at least in the past the UNPO stated that "a territory is ancestral when it is inhabited by a People for 500 years or longer." With such fundamentalistic definitions, it is clearly not easy to create a new race.

Creating a new language from stratch is also easier said than done. Only one micronation appears to have succeeded in creating a novel language, Talossan, but most of the micronation's population probably doesn't speak it with any of the fluency which can be expected from some Esperanto speakers, a constructed language which flourishes without anything even approaching a homeland.

The only room for manoeuvre left for the micronationalist self-starter are in the religion and culture departments, but most micronations with their own autochthonous religion — if they even exist in de facto fashion — would probably be indistinguishable from destructive cults, not to be confused with neutral or even positive new religious movements, and genuine cultural creation and adoption is relatively rare even outside micronational environments.